Auto industry disruptors speed up

Disruption in the motor industry will pick up the pace in the next few years with five major elements in play as it adapts and changes around the world.

This is according to Abdullah Verachia, global strategist, speaker and facilitator on making sense of disruption who believes the movement from combustion to electric is becoming much more pervasive.

Abdullah Verachia

“We will also see fully-connected digitised cars that do much more than get you from A to B. Cars are becoming spaces to work, to shop online, to watch movies, to connect to medical professionals, and more.”

Next is new forms of mobility.

“As we see rapid urbanisation new forms of mobility will become the new normal. These include current options such as Uber, Lyft and better public transport but also sharing applications like ZipCar.”

Fourth on his list is the changing nature of work which, he believes, will mean less trips and thus less dependence on vehicles which makes new mobility options more attractive. Lastly autonomous vehicles.

“Autonomous vehicles are still far off in its pure form but will become very prevalent in elements such as highways,” he says.

So, is South Africa lagging behind other parts of the world when it comes to Industry 4.0 in relation to the motor sector?

Verachia says both yes and no.


“South Africa is particularly great in terms of model launches that align to global cycles. Where we are lagging is in terms of the redefined concept of urban mobility. I was in Munich recently and drove 11 different cars through a car app. I was able to drive through multiple cities through seamless mobility.”

He adds that there are, however, mavericks in the South African motor industry doing interesting things.

“WeBuyCars has really transformed the buying industry. They have created a seamless, frictionless car-buying experience.”

He also mentions the Daytona Group that has opened a motoring haven in Melrose Arch in Johannesburg by aligning to the global trend of motor retail being about an experience and not a transaction.

But what does the largest retail motor association in South Africa, the Retail Motor Industry Organisation (RMI), have to say about this changing landscape? Jakkie Olivier, CEO of RMI, says it is challenging the South African motor industry to start assessing their businesses and where they need to be in the next five, 10 or 15 years.

“We saw how, almost overnight, the taxi industry was transformed with the introduction of Uber. While not all changes will be as rapid, we need to prepare for the likelihood that these disruptors will become the norm in the not-so-distant future.”

He says understanding the possible impacts is important.

“We know alternative fuels and electric vehicles will affect how vehicles are serviced and repaired. This will have an impact on how technicians are trained and qualified. It will also have an impact on the traditional repair workshop and motor body repairers’ business.


“Then comes the parts industry. The number of replacement parts in an electric vehicle, for example, is far less than in a petrol or diesel-powered vehicle. Businesses are going to need to be flexible and adaptable or will become obsolete,” he says.

Olivier says the RMI is encouraging its associations to become immersed in what is happening internationally in their area of specialisation and to engage with stakeholders both locally and abroad.

“It is a challenging time for the industry and we cannot afford to be left behind. The sector is a major employer with great potential for entrepreneurial businesses. We have to ensure businesses remain relevant and new entrants into the industry can succeed.”

Verachia says the South African public is going to have to embrace many changes over the next few years.

“Vehicle ownership is archaic. We have to redefine how the sharing economy fundamentally challenges the ownership models in the auto sector.”

He says the Internet of Things and Sensors will allow us to do preventative rather than reactive maintenance. This, Olivier says, will be a big step forward in terms of safer roads and responsible driving.

Verachia ends with the Gautrain as an example of how public transport can truly redefine mobility.

“The train has become an anchor spine between Tshwane and Johannesburg. We have to amplify this by using the model to provide safe, effective and workable public transport for all,” he concludes.



Top speakers for NAAMSA conference

The South African auto industry is united in its willingness to ensure ‘South Africa is open for business’ and to drive transformation and job creation to help overturn the greed, graft, corruption and theft that characterised the Zuma years and decimated the economy.

The Minister of Trade and Industry, Ebrahim Patel is expected to head a list of qualified speakers at the NAAMSA Automotive Conference, which takes place on Thursday, August 22 as part of the South African Festival of Motoring at the Kyalami Grand Prix Circuit and Conference Centre.


This year’s Conference under the theme, ‘Reimagining the Future Together’, is hosted at the back of the multi-sectoral adoption of the South African Automotive Masterplan – 2035, which President Cyril Ramaphosa spoke about during his State of the Nation Address recently.

Minister Patel will open the Conference and share his thoughts on how Government, the private sector and other social partners can collaborate differently to embrace innovation as an indispensable catalyst for prosperity and sustainable growth.  He will talk about Government’s readiness as an enabler to drive the required change in providing policy framework and policy certainty in order for the automotive industry to thrive.


The conference programme is structured to accommodate keynote presentations by NAAMSA President, Andrew Kirby, who will address the subject of how localisation and transformation will create joint prosperity and unlock growth in South Africa.

Douglas Comrie, Managing Director of B&M Analysts, will give his views on whether the current Automotive Masterplan is robust enough to insulate further changes.

There is also an international speaker, Bruno Grippay, Nissan’s Regional Director Africa-Middle East-India for Connected Cars and Intelligent Mobility coordination.  He will make a significant contribution to the overall conference theme of ‘Reimagining the Future Together’ as he paints a picture of the manner in which the future of global mobility is changing the way we view transport, as well as the adaptations required by consumers and the motor industry, both global and regional.


The international keynote address will be followed by a panel discussion which will look at the readiness of the South African automotive industry to lead the innovation charge. The panel will be hosted by Mike Vincent, a Director of Deloitte. Panel members will be Bruno Grippay, Mkhululi Mlota, Chief Director Auto Desk at the DTI, Hiten Parmar, a Director of uYilo e-Mobility; Craig Parker, Research Director and Associate Fellow of Frost and Sullivan and George Mienie, CEO of AutoTrader.

The final two speakers will be Ghana Msibi, Executive Head of the Motor Division of WesBank, and Mike Mabasa, the CEO of NAAMSA. Msibi will talk about the consumer of tomorrow, the impact of changing buying behaviour and the role of dealerships, while Mabasa will discuss the automotive industry roadmap for the future.

Around 400 delegates are expected to attend this year’s conference, representing OEMs, vehicle importers and distributors, bus and truck companies, component manufacturing firms, vehicle funding and insurance companies, government and other automotive regulatory authorities; automotive supply chain and logistics organisations as well as automotive service providers, researchers and consultants.

The conference is organised by Messe Frankfurt South Africa in association with the Innovation Group and AutoTrader.


 BOOK NOW: There is limited seating for this important conference which is ‘must attend’ for those involved in all aspects of the South African motor industry. You can book online by going to:

To view the full conference programme:


Transport and logistics need to change

The way in which the world does business is changing dramatically and fast, affecting a wide range of spheres, not the least of which is the transport and logistics industry that needs to adapt swiftly to stay in contention.

A very simple example of this change is the switch by consumers to online shopping, necessitating a whole industry revision of warehousing, packaging, labelling and delivery.


The logistics and transport industry is currently on the verge of a digital shakeup, which will dramatically transform it. With the evolution of digitisation, platform-based business models will connect new entrants, eliminate inefficient old ones and harness the cloud.

According to a recent report by Transparency Market Research, the rising volume of global trade will increase existing supply chain pressure. The logistics services sector is estimated to reach a value of $16 445-billion by 2026, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of more than 7%.

Digitisation is needed to offer more streamlined end-to-end services, in order to steer the logistics industry into the direction of becoming more resource efficient, faster, and more responsive to customer needs.


The annual FIATA World Congress 2019 will take place in Cape Town from October 1-5, at the Cape Town International Convention Centre (CTICC).

The event will bring together the international freight logistics and transport industry, it will be an occasion for industry leaders from across the globe, to gain insights into industry challenges and present sustainable solutions.

FIATA President, Babar Badat says the event will host more than 1 200 industry stakeholders and decisionmakers for discussions on issues in the logistics industry, the developments, the possibilities, new technologies and its influence on the industry.

Babar Badat

The meetings will also provide thought provoking ideas as well as opportunities for the sharing of best practices from international industry heavyweights.

“We are hosting this year’s event jointly with our Member, the South African Association of Freight Forwarders (SAAFF) and this year’s theme is ‘Where Technology and Logistics Meet.’

The Congress programme will focus on new technology, disruptive innovation and how this affects the logistics and freight forwarding industry worldwide,” Badat adds.


He explains exciting new concepts, such as artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things, blockchain and big data all give people a closer look at life in the future.

“The rise of technology start-ups is redefining the industry’s business models, pushing traditional practitioners to rethink what they have become used to in the past and what to change in the future.”

More than 90% of experts are convinced digitisation will add value for the international logistics industry, however, Badat says as with everything, digitisation comes with both pros and cons.

“Businesses have to ensure they have wireless networks and digital support infrastructures in place, there is cyber security and data protection. Good examples of this are the recent cases of cyber pirates targeting logistics and transportation companies.”

Badat is confident the existing supply and value chain, along with international logistics service providers, will rise to these challenges, saying: “The logistics industry continues to prepare itself, together with its customers, for digital transformation.

“Some leading enterprises have been testing and commercialising various kinds of autonomous vehicles, driverless robots, blockchain platforms, digital trade documents, and so on.”

He adds small and medium-sized enterprises with limited resources should embrace these changes instead of fearing them and advises they start upgrading their operational systems gradually with new technology, while keeping an eye on advancements in the industry.

According to Badat, participation from Africa has been on the increase in FIATA and the global logistics and freight forwarding industry, which signals positive economic growth and increased international connectivity.

“The annual FIATA World Congresses continue to be platforms which showcases our commitment to update our members on technological developments in the industry and to help prepare them for new changes,” Badat concludes.

Truck maintenance is key

The state of South African roads is shocking – we all know this but simply stating or complaining does nothing to mitigate road safety and maintenance issues.

“The wear and tear of trucks on our roads is an expensive reality, but the maintenance of trucks is crucial as it has a direct impact on road safety,” says Dewald Ranft, Chairman of the Motor Industry Workshop Association (MIWA), an association of the Retail Motor Industry Organisation (RMI).


So, what specific parts should truck owners be keeping an eye on?

“What is important to understand is wear and tear will vary from truck to truck although there are some general parts that should always be checked,” says Ranft.

Marius Swart, Workshop Manager: Truck Rental Imperial Logistics, says tyres are a very big maintenance expense, however, with proper tyre maintenance, which includes regular tyre surveys, running tyres on the correct pressures and in-time casing rotation, the cost can be kept in line with budget.

“Regular wheel alignment checks are essential to prevent tyres getting shoulder wear and to rectify vehicles running with the incorrect caster or camber adjustments. Shocks need to be checked and tested as worn shock absorbers can contribute to premature tyre wear just the same as a tyre running underinflated does,” he says.


Suren Sewcharren, owner of Hino Tech Motors, a MIWA member and specialist in truck servicing, adds that unfortunately the poor quality of the roads is also a contributing factor to the wear and tear of tyres.

“While they cannot control the quality of the roads, truck drivers can control their speed and where they drive on the roads – avoiding potholes and choosing routes that take less toll on tyres. Long-haul drivers also need to stop at regular intervals and check their tyres. This goes a long way to avoiding blow-outs and additional wear and tear,” he says.

With the newer generation vehicles, Swart says they are moving away from commercial vehicles operating with manual adjusted clutches. He explains these clutches require regular adjustments to ensure the correct release bearing free play (ie the play on the clutch pedal from when you start engaging the clutch pedal until the clutch starts releasing) is maintained to avoid premature clutch failure.


“Experienced drivers would detect incorrect free play and would request a clutch adjustment from the nearest workshop. Currently we are buying more fully automatic trucks or automatic manual transmission (AMT) trucks that come with their own required maintenance. So far they seem to be more cost effective.”

Another major wear item is brakes.

“The braking system is obviously a crucial element and one that requires special attention,” says Sewcharren.

Swart says on bigger vehicles brakes are adjusted on services and replaced before running metal to metal.

“Proper use of the exhaust brakes and good driving habits can extend the life of the brakes on most vehicles. It is essential that brake fluid levels and brake warning lights are inspected whenever they appear on the dash board,” he adds.

The drive train consisting of the engine, gearbox and diff need to be maintained as per the manufacturer and changing oils needs to be done as prescribed with the correct grade of oil with filters approved for the specific application.


Sewcharren adds the fuel injection system also needs regular attention.

“What is also key is the quality of fuel as this will have a direct impact on the running and wear and tear of the vehicle,” says Vishal Premlall, Director of the South African Petroleum Retailers Association (SAPRA), also an association of the RMI, adding there are wholesalers and resellers underhandedly selling dirty diesel and petrol to the trucking market.

“We cannot stress the importance of using premium fuel from reputable retailers. While you may think you are saving by using cheaper fuel, the cost of maintenance on your vehicle will be higher as the dirty fuel detrimentally affects the entire operating system of the vehicle,” he says.

Servicing vehicles using the same service sheet as the manufacturer to ensure the replacement, inspection and adjustment of components when required is key. Ranft says truck owners need to implement strict policies regarding the servicing of vehicles on time.

“Air filter replacement and inspection is a vital part of the engine maintenance as is the inspection of the prop shaft, a part of the drive train that is often overlooked. The centre bearing on the prop shaft needs to be inspected and lubricated as a faulty prop shaft will cause a break down or cause damage to the gearbox which could have been prevented with simple maintenance.”

“There are thousands of trucks on our roads every day. We also see many truck accidents that could have been avoided if these vehicles were properly maintained. Make sure you budget for wear and tear and choose a reliable and accredited MIWA workshop to keep your trucks in tip-top condition,” concludes Ranft.

Ford ramps up production

Everything considered, good news seems fairly hard to come by so the fact Ford Motor Company of Southern Africa (FMCSA) is taking on 1 200 additional workers to staff a third shift at the Silverton Plant, Pretoria, qualifies as great news.

The third shift is to meet the growing international and local demand for the New Ranger, Ranger Raptor and Everest.


The additional shift, which commences in August this year, will create 1 200 new jobs at the Silverton plant, taking Ford’s total employment in South Africa to approximately 5 500 employees. At the same time, it will significantly bolster supplier companies by adding around 10 000 jobs in this sector. In total, Ford’s local vehicle assembly operations will now support some 60 000 jobs within the total value chain.

“The R3-billion investment in our South African plants, announced in 2017, is now coming to fruition with the addition of a third shift to increase our production output,” says Ockert Berry, Vice President Operations, Ford Middle East and Africa.


“The investment enabled extensive reworks at the Silverton Assembly Plant to expand our production capacity from 124 000 vehicles per year to 168 000 units, which is 58 000 vehicles more than our original capacity when the current Ranger programme commenced in 2011.

“The third shift will allow us to ramp up our production from the current 506 vehicles assembled per day to a peak of 720 units to satisfy the strong demand from customers in South Africa, as well as for our crucial exports to 148 markets around the world.”

Kicking off at the beginning of August, the Silverton Assembly Plant will run around the clock using a three-shift pattern from Monday to Thursday, with the additional Friday third shift available to address any potential shortfalls in the production schedule.


“In addition to the job opportunities created for hourly employees, the new shift makes provision for 104 skilled artisans and technicians who have been appointed as permanent employees, thus adding to the skills set of our staff complement in Silverton,” says Berry.

Thanks to Ford Motor Company’s ongoing investment in South Africa, which reached R11-billion between 2009 and 2018, Ford’s domestic turnover now accounts for 1% of the country’s GDP. This makes the Silverton-based company a significant player in the country’s economy and manufacturing sector, as well as a major contributor to South Africa’s employment –  both through direct jobs, and within the total value chain amongst supplier companies.

Approximately two thirds of Ford’s local production is exported to 148 global markets, with the balance sold in South Africa and Sub-Saharan African countries. The Ranger leads the light commercial vehicle (LCV) sector exports, with the locally-built model consistently ranked as the top-selling pickup in Europe.

As demand for the New Ranger and the exceptional Ranger Raptor continues to grow in Europe, Ford began exporting vehicles through Port Elizabeth in April this year – a strategic move to address the high level of congestion at the Durban Harbour’s Roll On Roll Off (RORO) Terminal, which is the country’s primary import and export hub.


The multi-port strategy makes effective use of Transnet’s rail infrastructure to transport vehicles from the Silverton plant to the Port Elizabeth vehicle terminal. Approximately 1 000 Rangers are being exported via this new route each month, which has improved the efficiency and delivery timeframes to European markets.

Port Elizabeth is also home to Ford’s Struandale Engine Plant, which supports two global diesel engine programmes. Production commenced at the end of last year of the new-generation 2,0-litre Bi-Turbo and Single Turbo engines that are used in selected Ranger and Everest models, with an installed capacity of 120 000 engines a year – all of which are supplied to the Silverton Assembly Plant.

Additionally, the Struandale plant continues machining component sets, comprising the cylinder head, block and crankshaft, for the existing 2,2-litre and 3,2-litre Duratorq TDCi engine. Following the recent investment and expansion, installed capacity climbed to its highest-ever figure of 280 000 sets a year to support export markets in Thailand and Argentina, as well as local engine assembly.


Besides supplying fully assembled engines to Silverton for installation in the Ranger and Everest, the local plant also ships engines to North America, China and several customer plants in Europe with a production capacity of up to 130 000 units per year.

Maybe not a bad thing

Despite the knock-on effect of increased prices for pretty much everything, the International Monetary Fund has issued a report outlining why Carbon Tax is the best way to curb greenhouse gas emissions but, Government needs to consider ways of minimising these financial implications.

Ben Pullen, Co-founder and CEO of Generation.e says the Carbon Tax Act that recently come into effect in South Africa with the aim to penalise large emitters of greenhouse gases to minimise the climate risks that hydrocarbon fuels present.


“This, however, has a knock-on effect on consumers in the form of raised fuel prices and potentially increased living costs,” he says.

“As such, it is vital for the Government to consider ways to minimise these financial implications. This is especially important in South Africa, as even in wealthier and more economically stable countries such as France and Australia, efforts to increase carbon taxes were abandoned following a backlash from protesters over the rising costs.”

According to the report by the International Monetary Fund, carbon tax is the best way to cut greenhouse gas emissions, as it allows for a reduction in energy consumption, favours cleaner energies and provides much needed revenues that could be used to finance sustainable and more inclusive growth.

“With this in mind, global and local backlash should not deter the South African government from implementing such policies, but should rather serve as an incentive for it to reinvest in the country by using the revenue collected from the carbon tax to support the introduction and roll out of new smarter mobility, such as electric vehicles or increased public transport,” says Pullen.


“This will ultimately serve as a good way to hamper the use of carbon intensive products such as internal combustion engine vehicles and provide a cost effective, inclusive and sustainable solution for citizens.”

The transport sector is a huge culprit when it comes to polluting the atmosphere and subsequently our cities, and, according to, Johannesburg ranks as the 13th worst polluted city in the world.

“Therefore, in order to become a zero emissions society, the electrification of transport is vital.

“The good news is the Government has already begun implementing several initiatives, including the use and selection of environmentally friendly transportation alternatives such as electric vehicle fleets at the City of Tshwane, Department of Environmental Affairs and Trade and Industry in Pretoria.

“Initiatives such as these, as well as the continuous development of solutions such as the Gautrain, are already positive steps towards innovations away from vehicle use. Ultimately the goal would be to work towards creating an environment where vehicles are not needed and instead bikes, scooters and public transport can be used, or the vehicles that are used are either electric, hybrid or reduced through car-pooling and ride hailing services.


“To do this, a shift from asset ownership to mobility as a service needs to take place, where the focus is more on mobility getting people from A to B instead of them needing to own a car. After all, most private vehicles spend over 90% of the life sat parked idle. As such, a lot more effort needs to go into providing a range of safe, cost effective and sustainable mobility solutions.”

Business opportunities

Africa is not for sissies. However, it is a place with abundant opportunities for business provided it is prepared to move forward – and this forms part of Cummins’ centennial year plans for international companies operating in Africa.

It also plans to cap its centennial year by setting a new record in 2019, manufacturing more than 1,5-million engines and servicing about 12-million engines in the field globally.


“What that means is there are big opportunities for business, particularly in Africa,” according to Christopher Judd, Service Engineering Lead – Sub-Saharan Africa, Cummins Africa Middle East.

“In terms of both new and existing customers, these opportunities extend to first-fits and repowers, which means taking an existing piece of equipment with a different engine, and how it can be improved with a Cummins solution.”

While competition is strong on the continent, Cummins’ strategy is to ensure the lowest total cost of ownership (TCO) for its customers.

This has a fourfold focus: Reducing repair cost, maintenance cost and time, rebuild cost, and fuel economy. Fuel comprises about 75% of the TCO. Not only do customers have to purchase the equipment, it also needs to be maintained properly to extend its useable life. Running costs are critical, which is an area where the competition is the toughest.

“In terms of the engines we currently rebuild for the construction industry, we upgrade to the latest technology, which not only allows for the most efficient engines, but is still within the customers’ price range,” says Judd.

The challenge posed in Africa is it is non-regulated in terms of emissions. The rest of the world is divided into two broad bands: The Northern Hemisphere, which subscribes mostly to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions regulations and the Southern Hemisphere, where European Union (EU) agencies regulate Latin America, Africa, and Australia.

International companies not only have a major drive for emissions compliance from a regulatory point of view, but also because it impacts positively on their corporate image globally. South Africa is slowly coming into line, mainly in the bus and automotive industries, in terms of NOx and particulate matter emissions.

“Hence the main driver in Africa are these international companies. Our issue as a supplier of engines that adhere to strict emissions controls is the quality of the fuel supply. Our aftertreatment systems rely on ultra-low sulphur diesel, which is not readily available on the continent,” Judd points out.

Fuel contamination is probably the single biggest maintenance issue in Africa. From a superficial perspective, customers tend to think that, if the fuel looks clean, it is. However, the reality is there is both ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ contamination invisible to the naked eye.

“In terms of maintenance, the market has to be educated about contamination at the microscopic level. That extends to all the engine systems, not only fuel, but also air intake, cooling, and lubrication systems,” Judd stresses.

“Our construction customers typically have large fleets, ranging from 50 to 100 pieces of equipment in different locations. My advice to these customers doing their own services as an authorised entity is to keep accurate records of all service and maintenance. It is quite difficult with remote locations to rely on a service manager to record everything, as well as to ensure that all equipment operators abide by the operating instructions and guidelines.”


Another major issue is storage and handling, which not only refers to spare parts and components, but includes coolant, lubricants, and the fuel itself. All dispensing nozzles, for example, have to be kept off the ground and capped at all times in order to prevent contamination. Handling is critical, as contamination can be introduced without the customer even being aware of it.

“The construction industry presents us with typical issues that have to be distinguished between genuine product issues, or operational and maintenance issues. Has the application been catered for adequately? Is there an element of misuse whereby an engine is being operated outside its recommended guidelines?” Judd points out.
“This is easier to analyse with an electronic engine, which has an electronic control module that logs all events on-site, as opposed to purely mechanical engines that do not have remote monitoring or diagnostic capabilities.

“As an engine supplier though, we have to be sufficiently dynamic and flexible to inform our customers that we have two main options, mechanical and electronic, and will specify the best solution possible. If a customer is operating in remote areas where there isn’t a lot of service support, and the fuel quality is not ideal, then opting for mechanical engines is best. Of course, this is an older technology, but it is more robust, and can deal with more arduous operating conditions.”

At the same time, however, these customers are not getting the maximum benefit from fuel-cost savings. Cummins’ electronic engines have modular common rail systems that provide high performance combined with fuel economy. However, these are highly susceptible to dirt and contamination, which calls for an excellent maintenance regimen.

“Here it is often difficult for a customer to know what is best. Hence, we often take a step back to work closely with the OEM or equipment supplier to explain the specific requirements upfront in terms of duty cycles and load conditions in order for customers to have access to the most optimal solution possible,” Judd reiterates.

“It is getting better,” he stresses. “There continues to be issues in terms of misapplication, and we sometimes have to favour mechanical engines over electronic ones, but customers are becoming more aware of the importance of preventative maintenance. A lot of the time we rely on information from the service intervals to tell us when to look at an engine, especially in the construction, mining, and industrial segments.”


However, the service intervals are generally just a broad indicator. Conditions and applications differ, which impacts on maintenance requirements. Here is where Cummins can offer a solution. Obviously, customers cannot monitor their engines 24/7.

“That is not their core business. We can provide solutions that do just that, setting limits for service intervals, and recommending the lubricants, oils, and coolants – all based on hard data. The drive for remote monitoring systems, and to improve our diagnostic support, is a major push for Cummins,” Judd indicates.

The Cummins Service Engineering team’s focus in Africa is identifying and prioritising any emerging product issues in the field.

“We also support hard-to-diagnose complex troubleshooting, whereby we liaise closely with our factories in the UK, the US, and China. Lastly, we also provide training and communication for any new product releases, including processes and tools.”

Looking to the future, Judd is of the opinion diesel as a primary fuel is going to be around for a long time. The technology will, in most cases, be more cost-effective than gasoline due to its efficiency.